Mitral valve diseases develop due to either rheumatic fever experienced in childhood or aging at advanced ages. Moreover, the mitral valve failure may also develop after a heart attack.
The disease caused by calcification in the mitral valve is called “Mitral Stenosis”, and the disease caused by the weakening of the valve tissue without calcification is called “Mitral regurgitation”. In mitral regurgitation, blood leaks from the left ventricle to the left atrium. Symptoms such as rapid fatigue, running out of breath, rhythm disturbances and advanced heart failure are seen in the clinical profile of the disease.
Mitral valve stenosis usually occurs between the ages of 20-30. Depending on the severity of the leakage or regurgitation, surgery may be needed at advanced ages. Mitral valve regurgitation develops as a result of the disruption of the valve tissue. “Ischemic” mitral regurgitation may also be observed due to obstructions of the coronary vessels.
What are the symptoms of mitral valve diseases?
- Heart arrhythmia
- Murmur in heartbeat
- Running out of breath
- Edema, especially in the ankles or feet
How is it diagnosed?
The echocardiogram is usually used to display the functions of the heart in motion, the quality of contraction and its dimensions. According to the general condition of the patient, their complaints and ECO, the condition of the valves is diagnosed and treatment options are decided.
What are the Treatment Options in Mitral Valve Diseases?
The most vital rule in the treatment of valve diseases is to perform surgical treatment without impairing heart functions.
In all heart valve-related diseases, the surgical method is selected according to the degree of valve degeneration and the defection of the valve. If there is calcification or defection of the tissue, valve repair (plastic) or valve replacement is performed. The surgeon may decide to replace the valve with a mechanical or a biological one, depending on the age and general condition of the patient. Valve repair surgery is preferred in congenital mitral regurgitation and ischemic mitral insufficiency. It has crucial importance to go for surgeons with a high success rate in valve repair surgery. Because repair operations require special expertise.
Mitraclip is a procedure that is performed on patients with impaired heart function if the surgery is very risky and the patient did not respond to drug therapy. A catheter is inserted through the groin, navigated to the heart, the anterior and posterior leaves of the mitral valve are stapled together. The procedure should be done by an experienced surgeon.
After the valve repair or replacement surgery, the patients generally stay in the intensive care unit for 1-2 days and discharge on average 7 days later.